Conventional Arms Transfers to Developing Nations,
Richard F. Grimmett
Specialist in International Security
Paul K. Kerr
Analyst in Nonproliferation
Congressional Research Service
August 24, 2012
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/R42678.pdf [Go to this link to see the full report.]
This report is prepared annually to provide Congress
with official, unclassified, quantitative data on
conventional arms transfers to developing nations by the
United States and foreign countries for the preceding
eight calendar years for use in its policy oversight
functions. All agreement and delivery data in this
report for the United States are government-to-
government Foreign Military Sales (FMS) transactions.
Similar data are provided on worldwide conventional arms
transfers by all suppliers, but the principal focus is
the level of arms transfers by major weapons suppliers
to nations in the developing world.
Developing nations continue to be the primary focus of
foreign arms sales activity by weapons suppliers. During
the years 2004-2011, the value of arms transfer
agreements with developing nations comprised 68.6% of
all such agreements worldwide. More recently, arms
transfer agreements with developing nations constituted
79.2% of all such agreements globally from 2008-2011,
and 83.9% of these agreements in 2011.
The value of all arms transfer agreements with
developing nations in 2011 was over $71.5 billion. This
was a substantial increase from $32.7 billion in 2010.
In 2011, the value of all arms deliveries to developing
nations was $28 billion, the highest total in these
deliveries values since 2004.
Recently, from 2008 to 2011, the United States and
Russia have dominated the arms market in the developing
world, with both nations either ranking first or second
for each of these four years in the value of arms
transfer agreements. From 2008 to 2011, the United
States made nearly $113 billion in such agreements,
54.5% of all these agreements (expressed in current
dollars). Russia made $31.1 billion, 15% of these
agreements. During this same period, collectively, the
United States and Russia made 69.5% of all arms transfer
agreements with developing nations, ($207.3 billion in
current dollars) during this four-year period.
In 2011, the United States ranked first in arms transfer
agreements with developing nations with over $56.3
billion or 78.7% of these agreements, an extraordinary
increase in market share from 2010, when the United
States held a 43.6% market share. In second place was
Russia with $4.1 billion or 5.7% of such agreements.
In 2011, the United States ranked first in the value of
arms deliveries to developing nations at $10.5 billion,
or 37.6% of all such deliveries. Russia ranked second in
these deliveries at $7.5 billion or 26.8%.
In worldwide arms transfer agreements in 2011-to both
developed and developing nations-the United States
dominated, ranking first with $66.3 billion in such
agreements or 77.7% of all such agreements. This is the
highest single year agreements total in the history of
the U.S. arms export program. Russia ranked second in
worldwide arms transfer agreements in 2011with $4.8
billion in such global agreements or 5.6%. The value of
all arms transfer agreements worldwide in 2011 was $85.3
billion, a substantial increase over the 2010 total of
$44.5 billion, and the highest worldwide arms agreements
total since 2004.
In 2011, Saudi Arabia ranked first in the value of arms
transfer agreements among all developing nations weapons
purchasers, concluding $33.7 billion in such agreements.
The Saudis concluded $33.4 billion of these agreements
with the United States (99%). India ranked second with
$6.9 billion in such agreements. The United Arab
Emirates (U.A.E) ranked third with $4.5 billion.